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CHANGES IN THE NINTH EDITION Our primary focus in this edition has been on enhancing student success.This edition of Understanding Human Communication contains several improvements that should help students master the material more effectively.311 GROUP PROBLEM-SOLVING FORMATS 294 Types of Problem-Solving Groups 294 Computer-Mediated Groups 296 OVERCOMING DANGERS IN GROUP DISCUSSION Information Underload and Overload 316 Unequal Participation 316 Pressure to Conform 318 APPROACHES AND STAGES IN PROBLEM SOLVING 297 A Structured Problem-Solving Approach 297 Developmental Stages in Problem-Solving Groups 303 MAINTAINING POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS Basic Skills 305 SUMMARY 319 KEY TERMS 320 ACTIVITIES 320 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 321 305 PART FOUR: PUBLIC COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 10 CHOOSING AND DEVELOPING A TOPIC CHOOSING A TOPIC 329 Look for a Topic Early 329 Choose a Topic That Interests You 329 ANALYZING THE SPEAKING SITUATION The Listener: Audience Analysis 333 The Occasion 338 326 GATHERING INFORMATION 340 Internet Research 340 Library Research 343 Interviewing 344 Personal Observation 344 Survey Research 345 DEFINING PURPOSE 329 General Purpose 330 Specific Purpose 330 The Thesis Statement 332 333 SAMPLE SPEECH 346 SUMMARY 348 KEY TERMS 349 ACTIVITIES 349 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 350 CHAPTER 11 ORGANIZATION AND SUPPORT STRUCTURING THE SPEECH Working Outline 354 Formal Outline 354 Speaking Notes 355 x 354 308 352 PRINCIPLES OF OUTLINING Standard Symbols 356 Standard Format 356 The Rule of Division 356 355 316 i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page xi The Rule of Parallel Wording 358 Styles of Support: Narration and Citation 372 ORGANIZING YOUR POINTS IN A LOGICAL ORDER 358 USING VISUAL AIDS 373 Types of Visual Aids 373 Media for the Presentation of Visual Aids 375 Rules for Using Visual Aids 378 USING TRANSITIONS 362 BEGINNING AND ENDING THE SPEECH The Introduction 362 The Conclusion 366 362 SUPPORTING MATERIAL 367 Functions of Supporting Material 367 Types of Supporting Material 369 SAMPLE SPEECH 379 SUMMARY 383 KEY TERMS 383 ACTIVITIES 383 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 384 CHAPTER 12 PRESENTING YOUR MESSAGE 386 DEALING WITH STAGE FRIGHT 388 Facilitative and Debilitative Stage Fright 388 Sources of Debilitative Stage Fright 388 Overcoming Debilitative Stage Fright 390 TYPES OF DELIVERY 391 Extemporaneous 391 Impromptu 392 Manuscript 393 Memorized 394 PRACTICING THE SPEECH GUIDELINES FOR DELIVERY 395 Visual Aspects of Delivery 395 Auditory Aspects of Delivery 397 OFFERING CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM SUMMARY 401 KEY TERMS 401 ACTIVITIES 401 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 400 402 394 CHAPTER 13 INFORMATIVE SPEAKING 404 TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING By Content 407 By Purpose 407 407 INFORMATIVE VERSUS PERSUASIVE TOPICS 408 An Informative Topic Tends to Be Noncontroversial 408 The Informative Speaker Does Not Intend to Change Audience Attitudes 408 TECHNIQUES OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING 409 Define a Specific Informative Purpose 409 Create Information Hunger 410 Make It Easy to Listen 411 Emphasize Important Points 411 Use a Clear Organization and Structure 412 Use Supporting Material Effectively 414 Use Clear, Simple Language 414 Generate Audience Involvement 415 SAMPLE SPEECH 417 SUMMARY 424 KEY TERMS 424 ACTIVITIES 424 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 425 xi i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page xii CHAPTER 14 PERSUASIVE SPEAKING 426 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSUASION 428 Persuasion Is Not Coercive 428 Persuasion Is Usually Incremental 428 Persuasion Is Interactive 430 Persuasion Can Be Ethical 430 CATEGORIZING TYPES OF PERSUASION By Types of Proposition 432 By Desired Outcome 433 By Directness of Approach 434 432 CREATING THE PERSUASIVE MESSAGE Set a Clear, Persuasive Purpose 436 Structure the Message Carefully 437 Use Solid Evidence 439 Avoid Fallacies 441 436 ADAPTING TO THE AUDIENCE 442 Establish Common Ground 443 Organize According to the Expected Response 443 Neutralize Potential Hostility 444 BUILDING CREDIBILITY AS A SPEAKER Competence 445 Character 446 Charisma 446 445 SAMPLE SPEECH 447 SUMMARY 451 KEY TERMS 452 ACTIVITIES 452 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 453 APPENDIX INTERVIEWING 457 THE NATURE OF INTERVIEWING 458 Interviewing Defined 458 How Interviewing Differs from Conversation 460 PLANNING THE INTERVIEW 460 The Interviewer’s Role 460 The Interviewee’s Role 466 CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW 467 Stages of an Interview 467 The Interviewer’s Responsibilities 468 The Interviewee’s Responsibilities 469 THE SELECTION INTERVIEW 470 Employment Strategies 470 Tips for the Interviewee 471 Notes 481 Glossary 501 Credits 511 Index 515 xii THE INFORMATION GATHERING INTERVIEW Prepare for the Interview 476 Choose the Right Interviewee 476 Informational Interviewing Tips 476 OTHER INTERVIEW TYPES 477 The Persuasive Interview 477 The Counseling Interview 479 The Survey Interview 479 SUMMARY 480 KEY TERMS 480 475 i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page xiii PREFACE We asked George Rodman’s daughter Jenny (a college senior) and Ron Adler’s son Daniel (a freshman) what distinguishes good textbooks from bad ones.A good text, they told us, ought to spell out how theory and research relate to everyday life.18 Communication Competence Defined 18 Characteristics of Competent Communicators 21 TYPES OF COMMUNICATION 6 Intrapersonal Communication 6 Dyadic/Interpersonal Communication 7 Small Group Communication 8 Public Communication 8 Mass Communicaton 8 CLARIFYING MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT COMMUNICATION 24 Communication Does Not Always Require Complete Understanding 24 Communication Is Not Always a Good Thing 26 No Single Person or Event Causes Another’s Reaction 26 Communication Will Not Solve All Problems 26 Meanings Rest in People, Not Words 26 Communication Is Not Simple 26 More Communication Is Not Always Better 27 FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION Physical Needs 9 Identity Needs 10 Social Needs 11 Practical Needs 11 MODELING COMMUNICATION A Linear Model 12 A Transactional Model 15 9 12 SUMMARY 28 KEY TERMS 28 ACTIVITIES 29 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 30 CHAPTER 2 PERCEPTION, THE SELF, AND COMMUNICATION PERCEIVING OTHERS 34 Narratives and Perception 34 Common Perceptual Tendencies 36 Situational Factors Influencing Perception 39 Perception and Culture 41 Empathy and Perception 43 PERCEIVING THE SELF 48 Self-Concept Defined 48 Communication and Development of the Self 49 Culture and the Self-Concept 52 The Self-Concept, Personality, and Communication 54 The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 55 32 IDENTITY MANAGEMENT: COMMUNICATION AS IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT 58 Public and Private Selves 58 Characteristics of Identity Management 59 Why Manage Impressions? 63 Impression Management and Honesty 65 SUMMARY 69 KEY TERMS 69 ACTIVITIES 70 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 71 i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page vii LANGUAGE 74 THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE 76 Language Is Symbolic 76 Meanings Are in People, Not Words 77 Language Is Rule-Governed 78 THE POWER OF LANGUAGE 81 Language Shapes Attitudes 81 Language Reflects Attitudes 85 TROUBLESOME LANGUAGE 88 The Language of Misunderstandings 88 Disruptive Language 94 Evasive Language 96 GENDER AND LANGUAGE 98 Content 99 Reasons for Communicating 99 Conversational Style 100 Nongender Variables 101 CONTENTS CHAPTER 3 CULTURE AND LANGUAGE 103 Verbal Communication Styles 103 Language and Worldview 106 Language Use in North American Culture 109 SUMMARY 110 KEY TERMS 111 ACTIVITIES 111 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 112 CHAPTER 4 LISTENING 114 MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT LISTENING 116 Listening and Hearing Are Not the Same Thing 116 Listening Is Not a Natural Process 118 Listening Requires Effort 119 All Listeners Do Not Receive the Same Message 119 OVERCOMING CHALLENGES TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING 119 Faulty Listening Behaviors 119 Reasons For Poor Listening 121 PERSONAL LISTENING STYLES Content-Oriented 126 People-Oriented 126 Action-Oriented 126 Time-Oriented 127 126 INFORMATIONAL LISTENING 127 Don’t Argue or Judge Prematurely 128 Separate the Message from the Speaker 129 Be Opportunistic 129 Look for Key Ideas 130 Ask Questions 130 Paraphrase 131 Take Notes 133 CRITICAL LISTENING 134 Listen for Information Before Evaluating 135 Evaluate the Speaker’s Credibility 135 Examine the Speaker’s Evidence and Reasoning 135 Examine Emotional Appeals 136 vii i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM EMPATHIC LISTENING Advising 138 Judging 138 Analyzing 139 Questioning 140 Supporting 142 Prompting 143 Page viii Paraphrasing 143 When and How to Help?146 137 SUMMARY 147 KEY TERMS 148 ACTIVITIES 148 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 149 CHAPTER 5 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION 152 CHARACTERISTICS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION 154 Nonverbal Communication Exists 155 Nonverbal Behavior Has Communicative Value 155 Nonverbal Communication Is Primarily Relational 156 Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous 157 Nonverbal Communication Is Different from Verbal Communication 159 Nonverbal Skills Are Important 159 INFLUENCES ON NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Culture 160 Gender 161 FUNCTIONS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Repeating 163 Substituting 163 Complementing 163 Accenting 164 Regulating 164 160 163 Contradicting 164 Deceiving 165 TYPES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Posture and Gesture 168 Face and Eyes 168 Voice 170 Touch 171 Physical Attractiveness 173 Clothing 174 Distance 176 Time 178 Territoriality 178 Environment 179 SUMMARY 180 KEY TERMS 181 ACTIVITIES 181 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 167 183 PART TWO: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 6 UNDERSTANDING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 188 What Makes Communication Interpersonal?

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Marginal definitions of cultural idioms help non-native English speakers make sense of colloquial expressions.

Case studies now open each part, presenting real-life communication challenges on the job, in school, and in personal relationships.

Each case study comes with thought provoking questions that encourage students to apply the information in each chapter to understand and solve the problem.

And if we’ve done our job, professors will find the book does justice to the discipline and helps make their teaching more efficient and effective.

This edition builds on the approach that has served over a half million students and their professors well in the past. skills debate that often rages in our discipline, Understanding Human Communication treats scholarship and skill development as mutually reinforcing.It should be manageable within the length of an academic term.



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